Founded in 1995, International Advances in Economic Research is more applied and policy oriented than its sister journal, the Atlantic Economic Journal. Economic restructuring in a shrinking world demands close analysis and careful interpretation. IAER authors from around the globe look at these issues, coming together in an exchange of multinational ideas. This economic journal provides economists, financial specialists, and scholars in related disciplines with much-needed opportunities to share their insights with worldwide colleagues. IAER emphasizes the need for perfect freedom of opportunity to research and discuss global economic issues that impact the lives of citizens in all countries. Policy-oriented, empirical, and theoretical research papers in all economic and financial areas are welcome, without regard to methodological preferences, school of thought, or political point of view.